Date of Award

Spring 4-30-2024

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)




Dr. Brian Garrett

First Committee Member

Dr. Joy Shoemaker

Second Committee Member

Mrs. Kerrie Rodgers


Breast Cancer, Anesthesia, Natural Killer Cells, Opioids, Metastasis

Subject Categories

Medicine and Health Sciences


In the United States, the rate at which cancer is diagnosed is on the rise. In women, breast cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosis, following skin cancer, with approximately one in eight women developing breast cancer in their lifetime. When a patient receives a breast cancer diagnosis, the oncologic team will discuss the most suitable treatment plan for the patient, this often includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. Within the last few decades, research has shown that there may be a correlation between anesthetic medications and breast cancer metastasis. This project aims to create an evidence-based anesthesia guideline for patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Interventions will include a paravertebral block, total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), and non-opioid analgesics; evidence has shown that volatile agents and opioids can decrease natural killer cell activity and increase postoperative metastasis. The Johns Hopkins Evidence-Based Practice Guideline Model for Nurses and Healthcare Professionals will be used to guide this process.

Acknowledgement 1


Acknowledgement 2


Licensing Permission

Copyright, all rights reserved. Fair Use



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