Mathematics Faculty Scholarship

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

Conference Proceedings: ICOTS 9 International Conference on the Teaching of Statistics 2014


The International Association for Statistical Education


Reduced Major Axis, Statistical Procedures, Teaching Alternatives


The theoretical underpinnings of standard least squares regression analysis are based on the assumption that the independent variable (often thought of as x) is measured without error as a design variable. The dependent variable (often labeled y) is modeled as having uncertainty or error. Both independent and dependent measurements may have multiple sources of error. Thus the underlying least squares regression assumptions can be violated. Reduced Major Axis (RMA) regression is specifically formulated to handle errors in both the x and y variables. It is an excellent topic to teach students the importance of understanding the assumptions underlying the statistical procedures commonly used in practice as well as showing them that alternatives may better satisfy the actual needs.

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Publisher's Version

Peer Reviewed




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