Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Date Written

Summer 2015

Document Type


Course Number

NURS 5330

Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology

Professor’s Name

John D. Chovan, James R. Cacchillo


Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, Metabolic Diseases

Subject Categories

Endocrine System Diseases | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing


Diabetes is defined as a common metabolic disorder where hyperglycemia or elevated glucose levels are prevalent (Shah & Vella, 2014). The most common form of diabetes is type two diabetes (T2DM) and effects around 9.3% of the population in the United States (Cornell, 2015, p. 631). The pathophysiology of this disease includes involvement from the pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and kidneys. Hyperglycemia is high blood sugar levels that effects multiple organs (Rymaszewski & Breakwell, 2013). Protocols are developed to allow nurses to identify and treat hyper/hypoglycemia. Patient education is a direct impact of the long term effects of this illness. Maintaining a blood glucose level of 80-110 for hospitalized patients is a key component to faster recovery and less hospital days (Dumont & Bourguignon, 2012). Obesity is directly related to an increase of diabetes in the United States. There are many risk factors for T2DM including age, race, pregnancy, stress, genetics, and obesity. Obesity leads to a decreased ability to produce insulin properly and development of T2DM. Diabetes is largely preventable by maintaining a healthy weight with proper diet and exercise.



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