Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Academic Term

Summer 2022

Document Type


Course Number


Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse

Professor’s Name

Dr. Batross & Dr. Bhatnagar


Congestive, Heart, Failure, Edema, Congestion

Subject Categories

Cardiovascular Diseases | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing



Ostap Dvorakevych

Department of Nursing, Otterbein University

NURS 6810 – Advanced Pathophysiology

Dr. Batross & Dr. Bhatnagar

July 29, 2022


To provide the highest quality care, multidisciplinary clinical teams in critical care settings must understand the pathophysiology of the patient conditions they encounter. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an example of such a condition. CHF is “an abnormality of the myocardial function responsible for failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate commensurate with the requirements of the metabolizing tissue...a condition in which the heart fails to maintain an output sufficient for the needs of the body and the cellular respiration becomes impaired” (Dhadwad et al., 2020, p. 37). Around 5.7 million people have CHF in the United States, with an absolute five-year mortality rate of around 50% (Zhang et al., 2022). A patient presentation of CHF makes care more challenging. For example, “heart failure is a major independent predictor of adverse perioperative outcomes in noncardiac surgery…in patients with CHF and renal failure undergoing emergency surgery, mortality rates as high as 76% have been reported” (Nagelhout et al., 2022, p. 195). Education on CHF assists medical professionals in developing effective care approaches and provides education for the general public on risk factors and prevention strategies.


Dhadwad, J. S., Mangudkar, S., & Shende, P. (2021). Study of correlation between clinical and electrocardiographic features in congestive heart failure cases. Pravara Medical Review, 13(3), 37–42. 10.36848/PMR/2020/44100.51035

Zhang, X., Qiu, P., Prushinskaya, A., Jiang, Y., Fan, H., & Yang, S. (2022). Characteristics of emergency department admissions with congestive heart failure in the united states: A nationwide cross-sectional study. BMC Emergency Medicine, 22(1).

Licensing Permission

Copyright, all rights reserved. Fair Use



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