Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Academic Term

Summer 2022

Document Type


Course Number


Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology for APN

Professor’s Name

Dr. Deanna Batross and Dr. Shivani Bhatnagar


Heart Failure, Perioperative Risks, Nursing, Pathophysiology

Subject Categories

Cardiovascular Diseases | Cardiovascular System | Medical Anatomy | Medical Education | Medical Pathology | Medical Physiology | Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms | Perioperative, Operating Room and Surgical Nursing


Perioperative Risks of the Patient with Heart Failure

Gabrielle Metoyer

Department of Nursing, Otterbein University

NURS 6810 – Advanced Pathophysiology

Dr. Deanna Batross and Dr. Shivani Bhatnagar

August 5, 2022


According to the CDC (2020), heart failure occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to support other organs in your body. Heart failure is an epidemic disease affecting 1-2% of the population worldwide (Schwinger, 2020). It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an estimated 6.5 million adults with heart failure in the United States (Lo et al., 2021). Medical advances have increased the survival of those diagnosed with heart failure (Lerman, et al., 2019a) leading to an increased prevalence of those with cardiovascular risk factors undergoing non-cardiac surgeries (Smilowitz et. al., 2018). Patients with existing heart failure undergoing surgery are at an increased risk for major cardiovascular complications such as death, myocardial infarctions, and stroke (Smilowitz, et al., 2018). The attached poster explores defining heart failure, the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, and treatment of heart failure. Due to the increased risks of morbidity and mortality associated with patients with heart failure in the perioperative period, nursing and perioperative considerations are also discussed.


Heart Failure. (2020). CDC. Retrieved July 22, 2022, from

Lerman, B. J., Popat, R. A., Assimes, T. L., Heidenreich, P. A., & Wren, S. M. (2019a). Association between heart failure and postoperative mortality among patients undergoing ambulatory noncardiac surgery. JAMA Surg, 154(10), 907-914.

Lo, P. H., Chang, C. C., Yeh, C. C., Sung, L. C., Cherng, Y. G., Chen, T. L., & Liao, C. C. (2021). Adverse outcomes after non-cardiac surgeries in patients with heart failure: A propensity-score matched study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(7), 1501.

Schwinger, R. (2021). Pathophysiology of heart failure. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, 11(1), 263-276.

Smilowitz, N. R., Gupta, N., Guo, Y., Beckman, J. A., Bangalore, S., Berger, J. S. (2018). Trends in cardiovascular risk factor and disease prevalence in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Heart (British Cardiac Society), 104(14), 1180-1186.

Licensing Permission

Copyright, all rights reserved. Fair Use



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