Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Academic Term

Summer 7-29-2022

Document Type


Course Number


Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology for APN

Professor’s Name

Deana Batross


Inhaled anesthetics, Volatile anesthetics, Ryanodine receptor, Hypermetabolic state, Intraoperative complications, Perioperative Setting

Subject Categories

Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing


Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, life-threatening, and rapidly progressing disorder of the skeletal muscle tissue. It can be induced with the use of neuromuscular blocking agents and inhaled anesthetics which are frequently used by anesthesia providers. The pathophysiology of MH involves an uncontrolled release of free calcium from the ryanodine receptor that is found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum leading to a hypermetabolic state. MH has hereditary significance due to mutation of the ryanodine receptor, thus genetic testing and MH contracture biopsy should be performed to assess susceptibility. Signs and symptoms present as tachycardia. labile blood pressure, hyperthermia, elevated carbon dioxide production, metabolic acidosis, and muscle rigidity. MH needs to be prompt and immediate to address this condition. Intervention includes discontinuation of triggering agents, high-flow oxygenation, body cooling, and pharmacologic therapies (e.g., dantrolene sodium, sodium bicarbonate, antiarrhythmic, insulin, or blood products). Early intervention of MH supersedes the use of pharmacologic methods to prevent the progression of this condition.

Licensing Permission

Copyright, all rights reserved. Fair Use

Included in

Nursing Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.