Advanced Pathophysiology for APN
Dr. John Chovan
Ischemic Stroke, CVA, Pathophysiology, Stroke
Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing
Cerebrovascular accident, or stroke, as it is referred to is a serious neurological event that affects almost 800,000 people in the United States annually, of which approximately 87% is ischemic in nature. Ischemic stroke is mostly caused by atherosclerotic plaques that develop due to endothelial injury in vessels that supply blood flow to the brain. An ischemic stroke can be the result of thrombi breaking off from vessels in the brain, emboli from outside the brain, or small vessel stenosis, all of which occlude a vessel within brain and cause tissue ischemia. When perfusion to portions of the brain is reduced or eliminated, a complex cascade can occur that ultimately leads to neuronal cell damage and/or death leading to corresponding neurological deficits. Treatment of ischemic stroke is focused on prompt intervention to reperfuse the damaged tissue which often include the use of IV tPA or mechanical thrombectomy. Secondary stroke prevention include reducing or eliminating risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Nursing implications include close monitoring for complications following ischemic stroke and subsequent interventions such as cerebral edema, reperfusion injury or hemorrhagic transformation.
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Winner, Brett, "Ischemic Stroke" (2021). Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN). 465.