John D. Chovan, James R. Cacchillo
Viruses, Prevention and Education
Medical Pathology | Nursing | Public Health and Community Nursing | Virus Diseases
Ebolavirus, or Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), is of the filovirus family causing hemorrhagic fever first discovered in the African country of Zaire in 1976 (Turner, 2014; Hampton, 2014) and has gained global concern and attention since the recent epidemic outbreak in West Africa. There are five known species of Ebola: Zaire, Sudan, Ivory Coast, Bundibugyo and Reston, based on the region of origination. The Zaire species has been identified as the strain responsible for the current outbreak in West Africa, and has spread to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Senegal (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,2014; Gostin, Lucey & Phelan, 2014). The African fruit bat is most likely the carrier ,or vector, for the virus. Human infection results from direct contact and handling of the infected bushmeat of bats, primates, antelopes, rats and other wild animals . Transmission of the virus between humans occurs only through close contact with bodily fluids (blood, saliva, sweat, urine, vomit, breast milk, feces, and semen) of an infected individual (CDC, 2014; Gostin et al., 2014). The mortality rate for contracting the virus may be up 90%, with the recent virus outbreak averaging 55-60%(Hampton, T., 2014; CDC, 2014). There is currently no known cure or vaccine.
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