Advanced Pathophysiology for APN
diabetes mellitus, pathophysiology, insulin resistance, insulin deficiency, pancreas
Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing
There are two types of diabetes mellitus, Type 1 which involves a decrease in insulin production and Type 2 which is related to an impaired sensitivity to insulin due to peripheral insulin resistance (Chesworth, 2019). Type 1 diabetes is a dysfunction of the pancreas that an individual is usually born with and affects about 10 percent of the diabetic population. Type 2 diabetes is a product of obesity and age that affect the body’s sensitivity to insulin, not a problem with its production, and affects the remaining 90 percent of the diabetic population (Chesworth, 2019). The hyperglycemia that comes with the decreased production of insulin or sensitivity to it can lead to a whole assortment of complications if not taken care of. Living in a constant state of hyperglycemia (if the individual is not controlling their diabetes) is incredibly hard on the body’s cardiovascular and nervous systems especially. The only treatment for a person with type 1 diabetes is to replace the insulin the body’s Beta cells cannot produce: using an insulin pump or injections of insulin (Chesworth, 2019). There are many pharmaceutical agents that are options for people with type 2 diabetes. These medications can increase insulin secretion, stimulate insulin action, reduce hepatic and endogenous glucose production, and even other methods (Skyler, et al, 2017). Type 2 diabetes can also be controlled with diet, exercise, and weight loss if the root cause of the disease is obesity and a sedentary lifestyle (Chesworth, 2019). Diabetes is killing the people of the world in many different ways and while some people cannot prevent this disease (type 1 diabetics and age related type 2 diabetics) there are many people in this world that can just by changing their lifestyle.
Young, Cara, "Diabetes Mellitus" (2020). Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN). 415.