Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Date Written

Fall 2014

Document Type


Course Number

NURS 5330

Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology

Professor’s Name

John D. Chovan, James R. Cacchillo


Diabetes, T2DM, Insulin Resistance, Management

Subject Categories

Endocrine System Diseases | Medical Pathology | Nursing


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterized as having pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia (Stephens, 2010, p. 491). T2DM affected 29.1 million Americans or 9.3% of the population in 2012 and was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2010 ("ADA Statistics," 2014), with many of these patients finding it difficult to achieve or maintain adequate glycemic control despite making lifestyle changes and pharmacologic interventions (Freeman, 2007). Disease management of T2DM requires a comprehensive plan including medication therapy, education and active involvement of the patient, with the goal of therapy to lower the A1C (Robertson, 2012). Incretin mimetics are a class of medications available for treating patients with T2DM; they mimic the action of incretin hormones released during nutrient absorption (Freeman, 2007). Patients with T2DM have an impaired incretin response (Pratley, n.d.,p. 8).



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