Advanced Pathophysiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse
Dr. John Chovan & Dr. Sue Butz
Diabetes, Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance, Beta cell dysfunction, Metabolic disorder, Obesity
Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a devastating disease predisposing individuals to a myriad of serious health complications such as: heart disease, stroke, retinopathy, neuropathy, renal disease, dementia, amputation and early death. Diabetes care has a major economic impact worldwide, as a future family nurse practitioner (FNP) patient education on T2D risk factors, disease process and medical management are vital to halt this growing epidemic. A literature search was conducted and five peer reviewed articles were chosen addressing T2D pathophysiology, risk factors, effects of self-care behaviors and emerging treatment options.
Focused efforts from the literature reviews indicate education and adherence to self-care activities are paramount to minimize complications; accordingly, consistent glucose monitoring, diet and lifestyle changes are proven to improve clinical outcomes (Felix et al. 2019). The scientific understanding in one scholarly review isolated the pathogenesis of T2D to insulin resistance which was echoed in the other articles (Brunton, 2016). Research presented discussed sleep quality and quantity, depression and psychosocial factors impacting the incidence of T2D, which this graduate student found enlightening and relevant for the current generation given the incidence of sleep apnea and post-traumatic stress disorders in current patient populations (Ley et al. 2016).
Continued research is necessary to promote further understanding and enhanced management of this disease. New and emerging therapies to increase urinary glucose excretion in the setting of hyperglycemia were proposed (Cornell, 2015). Prevention is best, however once diagnosed with T2D managing disease involves lifestyle and dietary changes. Knowledge from research combined with this author's clinical expertise, incorporating patient preferences promotes evidence-based care which will positively impact this authors future career as an FNP.
Loney, Janice, "Type 2 Diabetes (T2D)" (2019). Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN). 366.