Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Date Written


Document Type


Course Number


Course Name

Advance Pathophysiology

Professor’s Name

Dr. John Chovan


congenital heart disease, adult, comorbid conditions, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Subject Categories

Family Practice Nursing | Nursing


Congenital heart disease (CHD) includes a wide array of disorders and varying degrees of severity and is the most common birth defect, comprising of 1% of all birth defects (CDC, 2018). Heart defects can be acyanotic (non-critical) or cyanotic (critical) (Deen & Krieger, 2016). Birth defects are determined to be cyanotic or acyanotic based on pulse oximetry and anatomy through echocardiogram technology (Mayo clinic, 2018). Due to the advances of interventions in this field, children with heart defects are living to adulthood and therefore are acquiring diseases of aging, such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes, in addition to the co-morbid conditions CHD survivors are classically at risk for, such as liver failure and kidney disease (Deen & Krieger, 2016). It has been found that the likelihood of acquiring type 2 diabetes is increased in individuals with a cyanotic heart defect (Deen & Krieger, 2016). The combination of these pathological conditions of hypoxia in cyanotic heart defect and insulin resistance in type II DM can increase morbidity and decrease quality of life in this population.



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