infective endocarditis, pathophysiology, symptoms, treatment
Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe inflammatory disease of the endocardium, affecting valve structure and function. IE occurs when endothelial lining of the heart is damaged by direct trauma or scarring. Platelets and fibrin develop on the damaged endothelium, forming a thrombus. Thrombus formation makes it susceptible for circulating microorganisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae to colonize (Thornton, 2000). The vegetation enlarges due to recurrent fibrin deposition and microbial multiplication (Sandoe, Watkin, & Elliott, 2013). Patients with IE often present with a high fever, new-onset cardiac murmur, and peripheral emboli causing a rash to the extremities. Complaints may also be vague, consisting of fever lasting several days to a two weeks accompanied by cough, dyspnea, arthralgia, arthritis, and abdominal complaints. (Thornton, 2000). Treatment requires appropriate antibiotic therapy based on the microorganism detected. Complications of IE include valvular failure, embolization, and sepsis.
Hein, Christine, "Infective Endocarditis" (2017). Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship. 226.