Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Academic Term

Summer 7-2016

Document Type


Course Number

CRN 30083

Course Name

NURS 5330 Advanced Pathophysiology

Professor’s Name

John D. Chovan PhD DNP RN CNP CNS


Gram-negative bacteria, sepsis, pathophysiology, nursing, symptoms, treatment

Subject Categories

Bacteria | Bacterial Infections and Mycoses | Family Practice Nursing | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing


Today’s medical world encompasses an environment in which gram-negative bacteria that once were defeated with common antibiotics, have now become resistant. Gram-negative bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter are pathogens that are an emerging threat causing sepsis due to multidrug-resistance (Pop-Vicas & Opal, 2014, p.189). The multidrug-resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria coupled with a patient population commonly seen in hospital settings, that consist of immunocompromised adults due to advancing age, comorbidities (e.g. AIDS, history of transplants, diabetes, and chemotherapy), and immunotherapies, create an environment for advanced infection or sepsis to take place.

Complications of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria can cause infection and ultimately sepsis in the host. Gram-negative bacteria with multidrug-resistance has caused a rise in hospital admissions across The United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), reported that between the years of 2000 and 2008 the number of patients admitted with sepsis increased from 621,000 to 1,141,000 respectively. This increase in hospital admissions has resulted in sepsis being the most expensive medical condition since 2011 with a cumulative cost of over $20.3 billion (Chong et al., 2015, p. 111).

The topic of gram-negative bacteria and sepsis was chosen due to the medical challenge presented to healthcare providers and the high mortality rates associated with gram-negative bacteria. Traditional management and treatment of sepsis resulting from gram-negative bacteria is no longer effective and healthcare providers are having to update and modify current sepsis protocols to fight the infection.



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