Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Date Written

Summer 8-1-2016

Document Type


Course Number


Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology

Professor’s Name

John D Chovan PhD DNP RN CNP CNS


myocardial infarction, women, signs and symptoms, men, difference

Subject Categories

Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing


As a future advance practice nurse (APN), it is important to recognize the symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI) and provide prompt treatment to patients to reduce morbidity and mortality. The worldwide leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 2008, coronary heart disease (CHD) was the cause of 7.3 million deaths, while cerebrovascular disease was responsible for 6.2 million deaths. Since cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for women, it is imperative for the medical community to identify risk factors and seek an increased awareness of gender differences (Worrall-Carter et al., 2011). After myocardial infarction, 23% of women over the age of 40 will die in the first subsequent year. After age 70, this figure rises to 32%. It has also been determined that younger women have a higher propensity to die in the 2 years after MI versus older women. (DeVon et al., 2011). As a student and future APN, it is of the highest importance to learn and recognize varying different presenting symptoms of myocardial infarction, and to initiate prompt treatment to prevent further irreversible damage to the patient’s heart and consequently other body systems (Van Berlo & Molkentin, 2014). Time is of the most critical importance due to the cardiac muscle’s inability to regenerate. Initiating a specific algorithm to treat the patient presenting with symptoms of MI in a timely manner could mean the difference between life and death (Kalman et al., 2013).

Included in

Nursing Commons



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