Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Date Written

Summer 7-2016

Document Type


Course Number


Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology

Professor’s Name

Dr. John Chovan


Cardiorenal Syndrome, Heart Failure, Renal Failure, ACE-I, Angiotensin

Subject Categories

Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing


Cardiac and renal functioning are highly related as each system is interdependent on the other, and subsequently, dysfunction of one system can potentiate the development of dysfunction of the other, a conditioned referred to as Cardiorenal Syndrome, or CRS. (Scully & Goldsmith, 2013). In CRS, heart failure and renal failure exist together. Heart failure is the result of decreased heart efficiency and results in hemodynamic and neurohormonal changes (Nicholson, 2014). A decrease in cardiac function and cause dysfunction of other body systems, including the renal system, and at the same time, impaired renal functioning can result in increased fluid retention and increased systemic vascular resistance and can prove to be detrimental to cardiac function. According to Giam, et al., (2015), the prevalence of heart failure is expected to rise nearly 46% from 2012 to 2030 secondary to the increase in obesity and associated comorbid conditions. With the prevalence of heart failure expected to rise drastically, renal dysfunction associated with heart failure is expected to rise as well, with heart failure being responsible for nearly 44% of deaths in patients with end-stage renal disease (Giam, et al., 2015).

Included in

Nursing Commons



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