Date of Award


Document Type

Honors Paper

Degree Name





Dr. Joan Esson

First Committee Member

Dr. Dean Johnston

Second Committee Member

Dr. David Robertson


heparin, paper based device, polyionic, smartphone

Subject Categories

Analytical Chemistry


Paper-based analytical devices (PAD) have gained popularity in the past ten to fifteen years due to many favorable mechanical properties.1 They have largely been used to analyze small ionic species, such as Na+ and Li+, but little research has been done on their capability of to analyze large polyionic species, for instance the highly sulfonated polysaccharide heparin.2,3 This study explores adaptation of a traditional optode design to a low cost PAD that employs a smartphone as a detector. Throughout the study variables, such as membrane composition, pH, volume of solution, time, addition of a polymer, use of different cell phone apps, and analytes including both low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH), were examined. The best assay settings were found to be a membrane that included a 2:1 mole ratio of tridodecylmethyl ammonium chloride (TDMA) and ETH 2412, respectively, and the polymer poly(vinyl) chloride (PVC), a sample volume of .5 µL, and an elapsed time of one minute.

Available for download on Wednesday, April 08, 2020