Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)




Elizabeth Seibert, PhD

First Committee Member

Joan M. Pryor McCann, PhD

Second Committee Member

Diane Jedlicka, PhD


Paramedics, Perceived Self Efficacy, Airway Management, High Fidelity Simulation, Paramedic Education, Quasi Experimental Design

Subject Categories

Medicine and Health Sciences | Other Nursing


The out of hospital (OOH) environment is chaotic, unpredictable and unforgiving. Paramedics are the primary providers of life-saving, OOH airway management, which includes respiratory assessment, bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVM), and endotracheal intubation (ETI). OOH ETI is the most difficult skill for which to obtain and retain clinical competence. Preventable patient care errors and deaths related to OOH ETI are a healthcare concern. Clinical experience remains limited for paramedic students in the acquisition of adequate ETI experience.

The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived self-efficacy (PSE) of paramedic students in ETI. Bandura's self-efficacy theory was the theoretical framework for this project. PSE relates to an individual’s level of self-confidence in his or her perceived ability to achieve successful task completion. PSE enhances psychomotor skill performance. High fidelity simulation (HFS) improves PSE in psychomotor skill performance. Ten students attending a paramedic program in the mid-western United States served as the study sample. Students were surveyed during an OOH ETI HFS curricular required laboratory (CRL) designed to mimic four commonly encountered OOH ETI situations. Participants completed identical anonymous pre and post OOH ETI HFS CRL PSE surveys. Data revealed a small, nonsignificant increase in total PSE scores after exposure to the HFS session. PSE scores for Respiratory Assessment and ETI increased in 50% of the scenarios and decreased in one scenario for ETI. PSE scores for BVM were not increased. Further exploration of the impact of OOH ETI HFS to increase PSE for paramedic students is required.

Included in

Other Nursing Commons



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