Biology and Earth Science Faculty Scholarship

Document Type


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Environmental Entomology


Oxford University Press


Short- and Long-Range Dispersal, Phoresy Rates, Pine Engraver Beetle, Diplodia Tip Blight, Canker


Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.:Fr.) Dyko and Sutton, is among the most common and widely distributed pathogens of conifers worldwide. S. sapinea is disseminated over short distances by rain splash and moist wind, but significant knowledge gaps regarding long-range dispersal remain. Our objective was to determine whether or not the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini Say, is a vector of the pathogen onto Austrian pines (Pinus nigra Arnold). In 2004 and 2005, individuals of I. pini were collected with pheromone traps at two locations in central Ohio (197 and 1,017 individuals for 2004 and 2005, respectively) and screened for the presence of S. sapinea. In the field, fresh logs of Austrian pine were baited with pheromone lures, mechanically wounded, or left undisturbed. After 2 mo, logs were evaluated for insect feeding and the presence of S. sapinea along beetle galleries. Fresh logs were also inoculated in the greenhouse with adult I. pini that were either artificially infested or uninfested with S. sapinea spores to determine vectoring potential. Phoresy rates for individual collections ranged from 0 to 4.1%; average rates were 1.5 and 2.0% for 2004 and 2005, respectively. Isolation frequencies of S. sapinea from baited (15 ± 5%) and unbaited logs (3 ± 1%) differed significantly (P = 0.009). I. pini was also capable of transmitting the pathogen under controlled conditions. Based on phoresy rates, association, and artificial inoculation studies, we conclude that I. pini is able to transmit S. sapinea to Austrian pine stems.

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Otterbein Student: Justin A.G. Whitehall

Original Citation

Whitehill, J. A. G., Lehman, J. S., and Bonello, P. 2007. Ips pini (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a vector of the fungal pathogen, Sphaeropsis sapinea (Coelomycetes), to Austrian pines, Pinus nigra (Pinaceae). Environmental Entomology 36(1):114-120.




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Copyright 2007 Oxford University Press

Peer Reviewed




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