Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Date Written

Fall 2014

Document Type

Project

Course Number

NURS 5330

Course Name

Advanced Pathophysiology

Professor’s Name

John D. Chovan, James R. Cacchillo

Keywords

Heart Disease, Fungal Infections, Bacterial Infections, Case Studies

Subject Categories

Bacterial Infections and Mycoses | Cardiovascular Diseases | Medical Pathology | Nursing

Abstract

Infectious endocarditis is an uncommon disease of the heart stemming from a bacterial or fungal infection on the endocardial surface of the heart or heart valve (Pierce, Calkins, & Thornton, 2012). From review of the literature, infective endocarditis is fairly uncommon and may be difficult to initially diagnose. Per Sabe, Shrestha, and Menon, occurrence of infective endocarditis (IE) is nearly 0.9-6.2 per 100,000 persons per year (2013). Several preexisting conditions such as aging, heart valve disease, implantable cardiac devices, a history of heart disease such as rheumatic fever, and invasive procedures can put a patient at higher risk for IE (Leone et al., 2012). As the occurrence of IE appears to be rare, it is important to emphasize that the complications of this infection are abundant even when treated acutely and appropriately. Per Mantan, Sethi, and Batra, the infection-related complications of IE can include myocardial abscess, meningitis, osteomyelitis, renal abscess, renal infarcts, glomerulonephritis, and purulent pericarditis (2013, p. 368). However, this list of complications is not all inclusive. The risks of thrombolytic events are increased with IE and one can experience a stroke, pulmonary embolism, and even blindness (Mantan et al., 2013). Treatment for infectious endocarditis must be expediential and persistent. Long term intravenous antibiotics are the treatment of choice and surgery may be indicated especially if a patient has a prosthetic valve endocarditis (Sabe et al., 2013). As infective endocarditis is an uncommon disease, the pathophysiologic impact on the body is significant. Proper diagnosis, management, and long term follow up could be improved through a better understanding of the disease process and systemic effects on the body. As a result, a case study involving a patient diagnosed with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis was chosen for review.

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