John D. Chovan, James R. Cacchillo
Mood Disorders, Mania, Manic Disorders
Medical Pathology | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing | Psychiatric and Mental Health
According to McCance, Huether, and Brashers (2014), bipolar disorder is classified as bipolar I and bipolar II mood disorder. Bipolar I disorder, causes extreme mood swings of mania or hypomania (emotional highs) or emotional lows (depression). Manic disorder symptoms include: excessive risky activities, irritable mood, elevated mood, distractibility, excessive talking, inflated self-esteem, racing/crowded thoughts, decreased need for sleep, and increase in goal-directed activity. Symptoms of depression include: loss of interest/pleasure, weight gain or loss, fatigue/loss of energy, feeling of worthlessness or excessive guilt, depressed/irritable mood, recent thoughts of death/suicide, insomnia/or hypersomnia, poor concentration/indecisiveness, and psychomotor agitation. Bipolar II disorder has repetitive depressive symptoms and past or present hypomanic episode (p.647). According to the American Psychiatric Association (2013), to be diagnosed with bipolar I, “it is necessary to meet the following [previously mentioned] criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes. To be diagnosed bipolar II it is necessary to meet the following [above] criteria for a current or past hypomanic episode and the following criteria for a current or past major depressive episode but there has never been a manic episode (pp. 123-134)”.
Perreira, Tisha, "Understanding Bipolar Disorder" (2015). Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship. 126.